Technologies in the confectionery sector. Read more

The market of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like several other industries, has actually transformed substantially in recent years. Although the standard formulations have undertaken minor modifications, the production modern technologies have altered dramatically (this uses especially to the techniques of forming little items and floor tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it seems appropriate to mention just these adjustments, but extra on those later related to details dishes.
Various teams of confectionery products require particular molding approaches so that they can be covered and also packaged in one of the most suitable means available. Possibly one of the most successful innovation was the pastry bar. These bars enable you to utilize cost-efficient methods of manufacturing, packaging as well as display at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious improvements in the packaging – both in the products made use of as well as in the sealing techniques. Most of benches in order to guarantee long shelf life, to protect against insect damages and also contamination call for protective packaging. We think about these consider different phases.
We have already thought about the manufacturing of chocolate, and therefore it is clear that chocolate and complex glazes have a predominantly fatty basis, their wetness web content is extremely reduced (usually less than 1%), and the active ingredients are not in aqueous remedy.
In numerous confectionery procedures, the dissolving capability of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account individually or in combination with various other sugars, such as sugar syrup (corn syrup) and also invert sugar. There are two primary groups of sugar confectionery products: a) items in which sugar is entirely dissolved, and b) products in which sugar is partially dissolved, as well as partially present in the form of tiny solid crystals put on hold in solution. These items might be changed with various other ingredients (for example, milk as well as fats). The first team includes hard candy, difficult and soft milk sweets, toffee as well as most jelly sweets. The second team consists of items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows as well as nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline framework.
Review confectionery production technologies
Below we will see that all the variety of structures gotten is a result of using numerous technological procedures and solutions, all of which require special approaches for the development of private items. Below we consider basic technology problems, and see their certain usages in other areas of this book.
Smearing as well as reducing

The machine is furnished with cooled down rolls, which allow you to feed the item straight from the device, where it is prepared, to the plate forming tools. After molding and also lamination, home plates are fed to a cooling gadget, and afterwards to standard reducing gadgets and spreaders. Then the items are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is most likely the earliest technique of producing bars (floor tiles) as well as specific items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as numerous pastes. A confectionery item in an ideal plastic state, identified by its dampness, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the called for density. This plate is then fed to reducing gadgets to create wide strips, which are after that cut into narrow tiles or bars. Currently, the warm item is fed to cooled down rolls, permitting to acquire multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that pass through the (” spreading maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or tiny items. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is used for the manufacturing of sweets, fondant and also jelly sweets, some kinds of milk sweets as well as fudge, marshmallows and also other items that can be gotten in fluid kind.
Lollipops (caramel).
Some items in liquid form might be formed at a temperature of regarding 150 ° C in a steel mold whose surface is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These items are normally cast right into cells developed in starch (see listed below the area “Fondant shells”). A a lot more current development is the automated rainfall and removal of fondant shells and also a few other confectionery items using metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), as well as the rainfall of caramel and also toffee right into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has one-of-a-kind residential properties and also is immune to fairly high temperatures, common for the production of caramel confectionery.
This technique uses virtually exclusively to candy sugar as well as some types of toffee. The usual flavored sweets, sugary foods with a filler as well as “toffee” are made.
The production concept is to cool the brewed syrup under regulated problems up until it reaches a pliable state. In this state, the product is changed right into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (generally of a particular shape or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting products are promptly sent to the air conditioning closet as well as covering machine.
To get some types of sugar as well as crunchy candies, a version of this technique is utilized, in which the harness acquired in a comparable way is fed to a cutting-wrapping equipment, where with the help of high-speed round knives, small pieces are reduced from it that involved the wrapping device.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The concept of extrusion, applied in the production of numerous non-food items, has been efficiently used in the confectionery industry. The application of this process to the production of different items– from soft materials such as marshmallows and also fondant sugary foods to very plastic nougat as well as milk chocolates– is described in [2] In this situation, the material subjected to extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of a number of rolls or augers. The nozzle opening account figures out the shape of the end product, and several extruders are outfitted with a number of nozzles that produce harnesses that can be cut into bars or little items. In fig. 19.2 shows numerous rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for cutting off small items from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing gum tissue and also eating sweet.
The design of the NID bar extruder is a little different. The feeding is executed by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, however the product to be developed is fed to a second profile roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to ensure easy splitting up of the product and also is made use of to shape the bars into the required shape. The pins help remove the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from one more confectionery item. Extrusion works well with other continual production as well as glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery need to observe certain safety measures.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature level is of essential relevance, especially when it comes to milk candy and also nougat, the uniformity of which is extremely based on temperature level. Little changes in temperature level can lead to large changes in extrusion stress. For soft milk desserts, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally utilized, however much depends upon the kind of item, and the exact temperature level.
Tour conditions must be determined empirically. Low temperatures as well as high pressures create ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides throughout extrusion, this suggests poor emulsification. Renovation is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the solution.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some items shed their form, and also the strip, which is almost round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might become significantly flatter. This is due to numerous reasons:.

expensive a moisture material;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as may be too soft;.
the protein of any milk active ingredient is not appropriately distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has actually developed or has actually been damaged by excessive mixing after crystal development. This defect can be very subtle, and also in continual fudge manufacturing, its look relies on the minute the taking shape lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is feasible to establish the ideal conditions for a specific equipment only experimentally. Firms focusing on the manufacturing of extrusion tools have executed a large quantity of research study in the design of equipments for the extrusion of confectionery items of various uniformities. For some products – such as gummies as well as chewing gum tissue – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These technologies are explained in other areas of guide.

The principle of panning is already defined in Phase 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – difficult and also loosened. With difficult knurling, successive layers of powdered sugar and also syrup are developed on the desired body (as an example, nuts) and also dried out with warm air passing away in between the applied layers. Loosened knurling is executed in a similar method, but using chilly technology. Soft shells are used (for instance, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling up), and also the covering is constructed from sugar (or glucose) syrup and powdered sugar. After getting to the desired dimension and also weight of the finishing, the candies are partially dried out and covered with polish. The process is completely mechanized, consisting of loading as well as discharging the containers, automated splashing of syrups (or chocolate), and also control of drying out or cooling air to the tanks.
fondant lotion.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is typically denoted in English by the word “creme” (cream), yet some conventional products make use of the option “lotion”, as well as in various nations it is called in a different way.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar and sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water as well as concentrating by steaming to an option consisting of about 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this option is supersaturated with sugar and also unstable, as well as if it is swiftly mixed as well as cooled down, then the excess sugar befalls of the service in the form of small crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a strong stage of sugar crystals suspended in a fluid stage containing a saturated option of “sugars”.
Without blending and also cooling down large crystals are formed. Beating in itself gives unsatisfactory outcomes, since a huge amount of latent heat of crystallization is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, crystallization slows down and succeeding slow air conditioning leads to the formation of big crystals. Fondant of top quality ought to be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing just sugar, which was dissolved in water and also concentrated by steaming to concerning the level of 88-90% ST. Because the solubility of sugar at regular temperatures is only 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is very unpredictable and also takes shape upon quick cooling, “giving” large crystals.
To conquer this downside, an additive was made use of that triggered the inversion of a part of the sugar and also boosted the overall solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, a lot more preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are used because of this additives. The development of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in one more chapter, yet below we just keep in mind that such ingredients break down part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) as well as fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and its presence with dextrose permits the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is really unreliable, given that the quantity of invert sugar created varies greatly relying on the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and also the firmness of the water utilized. Finest results are gotten by including in the sugar syrup a certain amount of invert sugar, prepared separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular structure and is extremely sweet in taste (it is hardly ever utilized in modern confectionery production). Sugar (corn) syrup has actually replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulas; it is less wonderful, as well as the visibility of complicated carbs controls the formation of crystals and provides an extra viscous lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) texture.